Sine Lab

Electronics Projects and Guides

The Ultimate Guide to Transistors (BJT Edition)

Transistors are the components behind all modern electronics. Unlike resistors, capacitors and inductors, they are active components. This means that they ‘add’ to our circuits, considering that they have an adequate power supply. Now, depsite being so important, transistors can be very confusing, since you have to juggle two separate signals. That’s what I’ll be helping you with in this video, understanding transistors. There are many different types of transistors, most notably BJTs and MOSFETs.

The Ultimate Op-Amp Comparison

Intro This is an op-amp that I’ve made completely from scratch in order to find out what exactly goes into making a good op-amp. Despite being perhaps one of the most important analog components, op-amps are oftentimes the most confusing, with all of their datasheet parameters and whatnot. That’s why I’ve put together this video, so you can find out what exactly you should look for when you’re deciding on an op-amp for your next project.

DIY Microphone

This is a microphone that I have custom made. And if you’re wondering how good it sounds, well you’re hearing it right now. I’d say that it sounds really good considering that it is homemade. The circuit isn’t even that complex, although there certanly is a lot of room for improvement, as you will see later in this video. Really, the secret to the audio quality all starts with this piece right here, the microphone capsule.

DIY Stepper Motor Driver

Here is my stepper motor making those precise 180 degree turns. Well, I think you may be surprised to see that the driver is actually this huge breadboard circuit. Some of you are probably thinking that I’m insane. I mean, why not just use this tiny A4988 stepper driver? It’s a whole lot simpler, more efficient, and will save a lot of space. And you are right, but today’s video is an exercise in engineering.

Diy Linear Bench Power Supply

A power supply is one of those electronics projects that is popular among beginners. And linear supplies are popular in this case for their seemingly simple nature. However, their design can be deceptively complex when you add more and more functionality to them. Unfortunately, I myself have neglected to make one of my own. That’s why I’ve documented my design process so hopefully you can make one of your own.

AVR Parallel Programming

I’m sure many of your are familiar with a device much like this. This is a microcontroller programmer. More specifically, an AVR ISP MKII. And as a programmer is meant to do, it takes our code written on a computer, and then writes it into our microcontrollers. And usually, this process works with a hitch, until you make a specific mistake that locks you out of the microcontroller. And then, this thing becomes a glorified paper-weight, unless you know about a different method of programming.

Power Your Projects With Lipo Batteries

Oftentimes, you will find yourself wanting to make one of your electronics projects portable. And you can’t exactly do that when you need access to a power outlet from the wall. That’s where batteries come into play. They come in all sorts of sizes and different chemistries, but one of them has risen to be the most popular today. And those batteries are Lithium Polymer or Lithium Ion batteries. What sets them apart from other batteries, such as Alkaline or NiMH batteries?

Make Your Own Am Transmitter

Radio is certainly one of humanity’s most interesting achievements. With it, we are able to wirelessly communicate over very long distances. That’s why I picked up this really old General Electric pocket radio. It only operates through AM modulation, and as you will see in the video, it is a very simple design. That’s what sparked my interest in creating an AM transmitter. How difficult would it be to send an audio signal, like music or one of my videos, to this radio wirelessly?

Run Your Atmega328 Separately From An Arduino

Welcome back to beyond Arduino. In the previous two entries, I talked about how certain peripherals of AVR microcontrollers work. And while these simulator boards are all good and fun, you should use an actual AVR microcontroller eventually. And since this series is titled “Beyond Arduino”, you most likely have an Arduino board yourself, which runs using an AVR microcontroller. No worries if you don’t though, you can follow along with the video and get into AVRs without an Arduino.

Make Your Own V-USB Keyboard

In my last USB video, I told you how the USB protocol worked and how you could use a special ATmega16u2 microcontroller to communicate over USB, to act as a keyboard. And while this is perphaps one of the better ways to utilize USB, since the small details are taken care of by hardware, there is another way that involves no special hardware, but rather uses firmware to run the USB protocol.